Ages 4 to 7  

Happy Stage 1

The Islamic curriculum for Happy Stage 1 (ages 4-7 years)

  • Arabic
  • Mafaheem Al Islaamiyyah
  • Fiqh & Usul
  • Geography
  • History
  • The Arabic alphabet
  • Basic Arabic words and their meanings
  • Reading & Writing in arabic
  • Correct pronunciation of the alphabet and basic Arabic words





  • Recognition of the Creator
    • What is Man?
    • Where did the first man come from?
    • The purpose of man
    • The Afterlife

  • Introducing Gender
    • Male & Female
    • Man & Woman
    • Boy & Girl
    • Father & Mother
    • Relationships between people

  • The concept of families, people, strangers and similar things


  • The Movements in Wudu (purity) and Salat (Prayer)
  • A basic explanation of the Five Pillars of Islam i.e. The Shahadah, Prayer, Fasting, Hajj & Umrah and Zakat:
  • Shahadah A Muslim declares his faith by reciting the kalimah in Arabic, which means: "There is none worthy of worship but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of Allah" La ilaha illallahu muhammadun rasulullah. This will be explained to mean that a Muslim does not refer, ally, serve, submit or follow anyone but Allah (SWT) and that the Messenger Muhammad (saw) is our best example to follow.
  • Salah - The five daily prayers are:
    • Fajr - From dawn until just before sunrise
    • Zuhr - After midday until afternoon
    • Asr - From late afternoon until just before sunset
    • Maghrib - After sunset until daylight ends
    • Isha -Night until midnight or dawn
  • Zakah - Zakah is a compulsory payment upon those Muslims who reach the divine limit (Nisaab) over a period of a year, it is payable on money, crops, livestock, trade stock etc…
  • Sawm All adult Muslims must fast from dawn to sunset every day of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar.
  • Hajj A pilgrimage to Makkah that is performed during the period from the 8th to 13th Dhu'l Hijjah, the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar and is compulsory upon every Muslim at least Happy Stage 1: ages 4-7 years oldonce in their lifetime if they are capable.


  • Looking at Qur’anic verses relating to Geography
  • Dealing with shapes and names of things e.g. the sun, moon, galaxy etc…
  • Ilm ul-Tadrees – how the Earth came to exist
  • The Dimensions of things
  • Basic History & Geology of the Land




The Science of Creation

    • “Say: Is it that ye Deny Him Who created the earth in two Days? And do ye join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds.”         
    • “He set on the (earth) Mountains standing firm high above it and bestowed blessings on the earth and measured therein all things to give them nourishment in due proportion in four Days in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek (sustenance).”
    • “Moreover He Comprehended in His design the sky and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: "Come ye together willingly or unwillingly." They said: "We do come (together) in willing obedience."” [EMQ 41:9-11]

Adam & Eve

    • “Behold thy Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vicegerent on earth."  They said "Wilt thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood?  Whilst we do celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thy holy (name)?"  He said: "I know what ye know not."”
    • “And He taught Adam the nature of all things; then He placed them before the angels and said: "Tell Me the nature of these if ye are right."”[EMQ 2:30-31]

The Books

Stage 1 | Stage 2 | Stage 3 | Stage 4

In addition to the above, home educators in the UK may find the national curriculum for the same age group useful and so we have included it below.

Important note: We have included all the mandatory subjects, though some elements of the curriculum are not entirely compatible with the Islamic curriculum. Some of these elements can be taught in such a way that does not conflict with Islam. There are some points of the curriculum however, which seem irreconcilable with the Islamic teachings, particularly under the subject of 'Music'.



Right: National curriculum in the mandatory subjects for key stage 1 (ages 5-7 years)

* Although it is considered mandatory under the national curriculum in the UK, various elements of the curriculum for Music are in direct conflict with Islamic teachings and can be very problematic for Muslim students at a secular school.

** There are also a number of elements of Citizenship and Religious Education that could come into conflict with Islamic teachings, however these subjects are currently optional.


  • Mathematics
  • English
  • Science
  • Other subjects
  • Optional
Mathematics at Key stage 1 of the National Curriculum
Teaching should ensure that appropriate connections are made between the sections on 'number' and 'shape, space and measures'.


Knowledge, skills and understanding Using and applying number

1. Pupils should be taught to:

Problem solving

1. approach problems involving number, and data presented in a variety of forms, in order to identify what they need to do
2. develop flexible approaches to problem solving and look for ways to overcome difficulties
3. make decisions about which operations and problem-solving strategies to use
4. organise and check their work Communicating
5. use the correct language, symbols and vocabulary associated with number and data
6. communicate in spoken, pictorial and written form, at first using informal language and recording, then mathematical language and symbols Reasoning
7. present results in an organised way
8. understand a general statement and investigate whether particular cases match it
9. explain their methods and reasoning when solving problems involving number and data.

Numbers and the number system

2. Pupils should be taught to:


1. count reliably up to 20 objects at first and recognise that if the objects are rearranged the number stays the same; be familiar with the numbers 11 to 20; gradually extend counting to 100 and beyond Number patterns and sequences
2. create and describe number patterns; explore and record patterns related to addition and subtraction, and then patterns of multiples of 2, 5 and 10 explaining the patterns and using them to make predictions; recognise sequences, including odd and even numbers to 30 then beyond; recognise the relationship between halving and doubling The number system
3. read and write numbers to 20 at first and then to 100 or beyond; understand and use the vocabulary of comparing and ordering these numbers; recognise that the position of a digit gives its value and know what each digit represents, including zero as a place-holder; order a set of one and two-digit numbers and position them on a number line and hundred-square; round any two-digit number to the nearest 10.


3. Pupils should be taught to:

Number operations and the relationships between them

1. understand addition and use related vocabulary; recognise that addition can be done in any order; understand subtraction as both 'take away' and 'difference' and use the related vocabulary; recognise that subtraction is the inverse of addition; give the subtraction corresponding to an addition and vice versa; use the symbol '=' to represent equality; solve simple missing number problems [for example, 6 = 2 + ? ]
2. understand multiplication as repeated addition; understand that halving is the inverse of doubling and find one half and one quarter of shapes and small numbers of objects; begin to understand division as grouping (repeated subtraction); use vocabulary associated with multiplication and division Mental methods
3. develop rapid recall of number facts: know addition and subtraction facts to 10 and use these to derive facts with totals to 20, know multiplication facts for the x2 and x10 multiplication tables and derive corresponding division facts, know doubles of numbers to 10 and halves of even numbers to 20
4. develop a range of mental methods for finding, from known facts, those that they cannot recall, including adding 10 to any single-digit number, then adding and subtracting a multiple of 10 to or from a two-digit number; develop a variety of methods for adding and subtracting, including making use of the facts that addition can be done in any order and that subtraction is the inverse of addition
5. carry out simple calculations of the form 40 + 30 = ?, 40 + ? = 100, 56 - ? = 10; record calculations in a number sentence, using the symbols +, -, x , ÷ and = correctly [for example, 7 + 2 = 9] .

Solving numerical problems

4. Pupils should be taught to:

1. choose sensible calculation methods to solve whole-number problems (including problems involving money or measures), drawing on their understanding of the operations
2. check that their answers are reasonable and explain their methods or reasoning.

Processing, representing and interpreting data

5. Pupils should be taught to:

1. solve a relevant problem by using simple lists, tables and charts to sort, classify and organise information
2. discuss what they have done and explain their results.

Shapes, space and measures

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Using and applying shape, space and measures

1. Pupils should be taught to:

Problem solving

  1. try different approaches and find ways of overcoming difficulties when solving shape and space problems
  2. select and use appropriate mathematical equipment when solving problems involving measures or measurement
  3. select and use appropriate equipment and materials when solving shape and space problems


  1. use the correct language and vocabulary for shape, space and measures


  1. recognise simple spatial patterns and relationships and make predictions about them
  2. use mathematical communication and explanation skills.

Understanding patterns and properties of shape

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. describe properties of shapes that they can see or visualise using the related vocabulary
  2. observe, handle and describe common 2-D and 3-D shapes; name and describe the mathematical features of common 2-D and 3-D shapes, including triangles of various kinds, rectangles including squares, circles, cubes, cuboids, then hexagons, pentagons, cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres
  3. create 2-D shapes and 3-D shapes
  4. recognise reflective symmetry in familiar 2-D shapes and patterns.

Understanding properties of position and movement

3. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. observe, visualise and describe positions, directions and movements using common words
  2. recognise movements in a straight line (translations) and rotations, and combine them in simple ways [for example, give instructions to get to the headteacher's office or for rotating a programmable toy]
  3. recognise right angles.

Understanding measures

4. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. estimate the size of objects and order them by direct comparison using appropriate language; put familiar events in chronological order; compare and measure objects using uniform non-standard units [for example, a straw, wooden cubes], then with a standard unit of length (cm, m), weight (kg), capacity (l) [for example, 'longer or shorter than a metre rule', 'three-and-a-bit litre jugs']; compare the durations of events using a standard unit of time
  2. understand angle as a measure of turn using whole turns, half-turns and quarter-turns
  3. estimate, measure and weigh objects; choose and use simple measuring instruments, reading and interpreting numbers, and scales to the nearest labelled division.
Breadth of Study

Teaching should ensure that appropriate connections are made between the sections on 'number' and 'shape, space and measures'.

Breadth of study

1. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through:

  1. practical activity, exploration and discussion
  2. using mathematical ideas in practical activities, then recording these using objects, pictures, diagrams, words, numbers and symbols
  3. using mental images of numbers and their relationships to support the development of mental calculation strategies
  4. estimating, drawing and measuring in a range of practical contexts
  5. drawing inferences from data in practical activities
  6. exploring and using a variety of resources and materials, including ICT
activities that encourage them to make connections between number work and other aspects of their work in mathematics.
English at Key stage 1 of the National Curriculum
Teaching should ensure that work in 'speaking and listening', 'reading' and 'writing' is integrated.

Speaking & Listening

Knowledge, skills and understanding


1. To speak clearly, fluently and confidently to different people, pupils should be taught to:

  1. speak with clear diction and appropriate intonation
  2. choose words with precision
  3. organise what they say
  4. focus on the main point(s)
  5. include relevant detail
  6. take into account the needs of their listeners.


2. To listen, understand and respond to others, pupils should be taught to:

  1. sustain concentration
  2. remember specific points that interest them
  3. make relevant comments
  4. listen to others' reactions
  5. ask questions to clarify their understanding
  6. identify and respond to sound patterns in language [for example, alliteration, rhyme, word play].

Group discussion and interaction

3. To join in as members of a group, pupils should be taught to:

  1. take turns in speaking
  2. relate their contributions to what has gone on before
  3. take different views into account
  4. extend their ideas in the light of discussion
  5. give reasons for opinions and actions.


4. To participate in a range of drama activities, pupils should be taught to:

  1. use language and actions to explore and convey situations, characters and emotions
  2. create and sustain roles individually and when working with others
  3. comment constructively on drama they have watched or in which they have taken part.

Standard English

5. Pupils should be introduced to some of the main features of spoken standard English and be taught to use them.

Language variation

6. Pupils should be taught about how speech varies:

  1. in different circumstances [for example, to reflect on how their speech changes in more formal situations]
  2. to take account of different listeners [for example, adapting what they say when speaking to people they do not know].

Breadth of study

7. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through the following range of activities, contexts and purposes.


8. The range should include:

  1. telling stories, real and imagined
  2. reading aloud and reciting
  3. describing events and experiences
  4. speaking to different people, including friends, the class, teachers and other adults.


9. The range should include opportunities for pupils to listen to:

  1. each other
  2. adults giving detailed explanations and presentations [for example, describing how a model works, reading aloud]
  3. recordings [for example, radio, television].

Group discussion and interaction

10. The range of purposes should include:

  1. making plans and investigating
  2. sharing ideas and experiences
  3. commenting and reporting.

Drama activities

11. The range should include:

  1. working in role
  2. presenting drama and stories to others [for example, telling a story through tableaux or using a narrator]
  3. responding to performances.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Reading strategies

1. Pupils should be taught to read with fluency, accuracy, understanding and enjoyment:

Word recognition and graphic knowledge

They should be taught phonemic awareness and phonic knowledge to decode and encode words, including to:

  1. hear, identify, segment and blend phonemes in words
  2. sound and name the letters of the alphabet
  3. identify syllables in words
  4. recognise that the same sounds may have different spellings and that the same spellings may relate to different sounds
  5. read on sight high-frequency words and other familiar words
  6. recognise words with common spelling patterns
  7. recognise specific parts of words, including prefixes, suffixes, inflectional endings, plurals
  8. link sound and letter patterns, exploring rhyme, alliteration and other sound patterns

Understanding text

They should be taught to use grammatical understanding and their knowledge of the content and context of texts to:

  1. understand how word order affects meaning
  2. decipher new words, and confirm or check meaning
  3. work out the sense of a sentence by rereading or reading ahead
  4. focus on meaning derived from the text as a whole
  5. use their knowledge of book conventions, structure, sequence and presentational devices
  6. draw on their background knowledge and understanding of the content.

Reading for information

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. use the organisational features of non-fiction texts, including captions, illustrations, contents, index and chapters, to find information
  2. understand that texts about the same topic may contain different information or present similar information in different ways
  3. use reference materials for different purposes.


3. To develop their understanding of fiction, poetry and drama, pupils should be taught to:

  1. identify and describe characters, events and settings in fiction
  2. use their knowledge of sequence and story language when they are retelling stories and predicting events
  3. express preferences, giving reasons
  4. learn, recite and act out stories and poems
  5. identify patterns of rhythm, rhyme and sounds in poems and their effects
  6. respond imaginatively in different ways to what they read [for example, using the characters from a story in drama, writing poems based on ones they read, showing their understanding through art or music].

Language structure and variation

4. To read texts with greater accuracy and understanding, pupils should be taught about the characteristics of different types of text [for example, beginnings and endings in stories, use of captions].

Breadth of study

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through the following ranges of literature and non-fiction and non-literary texts.


6. The range should include:

  1. stories and poems with familiar settings and those based on imaginary or fantasy worlds
  2. stories, plays and poems by significant children's authors
  3. retellings of traditional folk and fairy stories
  4. stories and poems from a range of cultures
  5. stories, plays and poems with patterned and predictable language
  6. stories and poems that are challenging in terms of length or vocabulary
  7. texts where the use of language benefits from being read aloud and reread.

Non-fiction and non-literary texts

7. The range should include:

  1. print and ICT-based information texts, including those with continuous text and relevant illustrations
  2. dictionaries, encyclopedias and other reference materials.

Knowledge, skills and understanding


1. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. use adventurous and wide-ranging vocabulary
  2. sequence events and recount them in appropriate detail
  3. put their ideas into sentences
  4. use a clear structure to organise their writing
  5. vary their writing to suit the purpose and reader
  6. use the texts they read as models for their own writing.

Planning and drafting

2. Working with the teacher and with others, in order to develop their writing, pupils should be taught to:

  1. write familiar words and attempt unfamiliar ones
  2. assemble and develop ideas on paper and on screen
  3. plan and review their writing, discussing the quality of what is written
  4. write extended texts, with support [for example, using the teacher as writer].


3. Pupils should be taught:

  1. how punctuation helps a reader understand what is written
  2. the connections between punctuation and sentence structure, intonation and emphasis
  3. to use capital letters, full stops, question marks and to begin to use commas.


4. Pupils should be taught to:

Spelling strategies

  1. write each letter of the alphabet
  2. use their knowledge of sound-symbol relationships and phonological patterns [for example, consonant clusters and vowel phonemes]
  3. recognise and use simple spelling patterns
  4. write common letter strings
  5. spell common words
  6. spell words with common prefixes and inflectional endings

Checking spelling

  1. check the accuracy of their spelling, using word banks and dictionaries
  2. use their knowledge of word families and other words
  3. identify reasons for misspellings.

Handwriting and presentation

5. In order to develop a legible style, pupils should be taught:


  1. how to hold a pencil/pen
  2. to write from left to right and top to bottom of a page
  3. to start and finish letters correctly
  4. to form letters of regular size and shape
  5. to put regular spaces between letters and words
  6. how to form lower- and upper-case letters
  7. how to join letters


  1. the importance of clear and neat presentation in order to communicate their meaning effectively.

Standard English

6. Pupils should be taught some of the grammatical features of written standard English.

Language structure

7. In composing their own texts, pupils should be taught to consider:

  1. how word choice and order are crucial to meaning
  2. the nature and use of nouns, verbs and pronouns
  3. how ideas may be linked in sentences and how sequences of sentences fit together.

Breadth of study

8. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through addressing the following ranges of purposes, readers and forms of writing.
9. The range of purposes for writing should include:

  1. to communicate to others
  2. to create imaginary worlds
  3. to explore experience
  4. to organise and explain information.

10. Pupils should be taught the value of writing for remembering and developing ideas.
11. The range of readers for writing should include teachers, other adults, children and the writers themselves.

12. The range of forms of writing should include narratives, poems, notes, lists, captions, records, messages, instructions.

Science at Key stage 1 of the National Curriculum
Teaching should ensure that 'scientific enquiry' is taught through contexts taken from the sections on 'life processes and living things', 'materials and their properties' and 'physical processes'.

Scientific Enquiry

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Ideas and evidence in science

1. Pupils should be taught that it is important to collect evidence by making observations and measurements when trying to answer a question.

Investigative skills

2. Pupils should be taught to:


  1. ask questions [for example, 'How?', 'Why?', 'What will happen if ... ?'] and decide how they might find answers to them
  2. use first-hand experience and simple information sources to answer questions
  3. think about what might happen before deciding what to do
  4. recognise when a test or comparison is unfair

Obtaining and presenting evidence

  1. follow simple instructions to control the risks to themselves and to others
  2. explore, using the senses of sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste as appropriate, and make and record observations and measurements
  3. communicate what happened in a variety of ways, including using ICT [for example, in speech and writing, by drawings, tables, block graphs and pictograms]

Considering evidence and evaluating

  1. make simple comparisons [for example, hand span, shoe size] and identify simple patterns or associations
  2. compare what happened with what they expected would happen, and try to explain it, drawing on their knowledge and understanding
  3. review their work and explain what they did to others.
Life processes and living things

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Life processes

1. Pupils should be taught:

  1. the differences between things that are living and things that have never been alive
  2. that animals, including humans, move, feed, grow, use their senses and reproduce
  3. to relate life processes to animals and plants found in the local environment.

Humans and other animals

2. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to recognise and compare the main external parts of the bodies of humans and other animals
  2. that humans and other animals need food and water to stay alive
  3. that taking exercise and eating the right types and amounts of food help humans to keep healthy 
  4. about the role of drugs as medicines
  5. how to treat animals with care and sensitivity
  6. that humans and other animals can produce offspring and that these offspring grow into adults
  7. about the senses that enable humans and other animals to be aware of the world around them.

Green plants

3. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to recognise that plants need light and water to grow
  2. to recognise and name the leaf, flower, stem and root of flowering plants
  3. that seeds grow into flowering plants.

Variation and classification

4. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. recognise similarities and differences between themselves and others, and to treat others with sensitivity
  2. group living things according to observable similarities and differences.

Living things in their environment

5. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. find out about the different kinds of plants and animals in the local environment
  2. identify similarities and differences between local environments and ways in which these affect animals and plants that are found there
  3. care for the environment.
Materials and their properties

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Grouping materials

1. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. use their senses to explore and recognise the similarities and differences between materials
  2. sort objects into groups on the basis of simple material properties [for example, roughness, hardness, shininess, ability to float, transparency and whether they are magnetic or non-magnetic]
  3. recognise and name common types of material [for example, metal, plastic, wood, paper, rock] and recognise that some of them are found naturally
  4. find out about the uses of a variety of materials [for example, glass, wood, wool] and how these are chosen for specific uses on the basis of their simple properties.

Changing materials

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. find out how the shapes of objects made from some materials can be changed by some processes, including squashing, bending, twisting and stretching
  2. explore and describe the way some everyday materials [for example, water, chocolate, bread, clay] change when they are heated or cooled.
Physical processes

Knowledge, skills and understanding


1. Pupils should be taught:

  1. about everyday appliances that use electricity
  2. about simple series circuits involving batteries, wires, bulbs and other components [for example, buzzers, motors]
  3. how a switch can be used to break a circuit.

Forces and motion

2. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to find out about, and describe the movement of, familiar things [for example, cars going faster, slowing down, changing direction]
  2. that both pushes and pulls are examples of forces
  3. to recognise that when things speed up, slow down or change direction, there is a cause [for example, a push or a pull].

Light and sound

3. Pupils should be taught:

Light and dark

  1. to identify different light sources, including the Sun
  2. that darkness is the absence of light

Making and detecting sounds

  1. that there are many kinds of sound and sources of sound
that sounds travel away from sources, getting fainter as they do so, and that they are heard when they enter the ear.
Breadth of study

1. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through:

  1. a range of domestic and environmental contexts that are familiar and of interest to them
  2. looking at the part science has played in the development of many useful things
  3. using a range of sources of information and data, including ICT-based sources
  4. using first-hand and secondary data to carry out a range of scientific investigations, including complete investigations.

2. During the key stage, pupils should be taught to:


  1. use simple scientific language to communicate ideas and to name and describe living things, materials, phenomena and processes

Health and safety

recognise that there are hazards in living things, materials and physical processes, and assess risks and take action to reduce risks to themselves and others.


Other subjects at Key stage 1 of the National Curriculum
The following are the other mandatory subjects at key stage 1.


Teaching should ensure that 'geographical enquiry and skills' are used when developing 'knowledge and understanding of places, patterns and processes', and 'environmental change and sustainable development'.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Geographical enquiry and skills

1. In undertaking geographical enquiry, pupils should be taught to:

  1. ask geographical questions [for example, 'What is it like to live in this place?']
  2. observe and record [for example, identify buildings in the street and complete a chart]
  3. express their own views about people, places and environments [for example, about litter in the school]
  4. communicate in different ways [for example, in pictures, speech, writing].

2. In developing geographical skills, pupils should be taught to:

  1. use geographical vocabulary [for example, hill, river, motorway, near, far, north, south]
  2. use fieldwork skills [for example, recording information on a school plan or local area map]
  3. use globes, maps and plans at a range of scales [for example, following a route on a map]
  4. use secondary sources of information [for example, CD-ROMs, pictures, photographs, stories, information texts, videos, artefacts]
  5. make maps and plans [for example, a pictorial map of a place in a story] .

Knowledge and understanding of places

3. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. identify and describe what places are like [for example, in terms of landscape, jobs, weather]
  2. identify and describe where places are [for example, position on a map, whether they are on a river]
  3. recognise how places have become the way they are and how they are changing [for example, the quality of the environment in a street]
  4. recognise how places compare with other places [for example, compare the local area with places elsewhere in the United Kingdom]
  5. recognise how places are linked to other places in the world [for example, food from other countries].

Knowledge and understanding of patterns and processes

4. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. make observations about where things are located [for example, a pedestrian crossing near school gates] and about other features in the environment [for example, seasonal changes in weather]
  2. recognise changes in physical and human features [for example, heavy rain flooding fields].

Knowledge and understanding of environmental change and sustainable development

5. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. recognise changes in the environment [for example, traffic pollution in a street]
  2. recognise how the environment may be improved and sustained [for example, by restricting the number of cars].

Breadth of study

6. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through the study of two localities:

  1. the locality of the school
  2. a locality either in the United Kingdom or overseas that has physical and/or human features that contrast with those in the locality of the school.

7. In their study of localities, pupils should:

  1. study at a local scale
  2. carry out fieldwork investigations outside the classroom.

During key stage 1 pupils learn about people's lives and lifestyles. They find out about significant men, women, children and events from the recent and more distant past, including those from both Britain and the wider world. They listen and respond to stories and use sources of information to help them ask and answer questions. They learn how the past is different from the present.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Chronological understanding

1. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. place events and objects in chronological order
  2. use common words and phrases relating to the passing of time [for example, before, after, a long time ago, past].

Knowledge and understanding of events, people and changes in the past

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. recognise why people did things, why events happened and what happened as a result
  2. identify differences between ways of life at different times.

Historical interpretation

3. Pupils should be taught to identify different ways in which the past is represented.

Historical enquiry

4. Pupils should be taught:

  1. how to find out about the past from a range of sources of information [for example, stories, eye-witness accounts, pictures and photographs, artefacts, historic buildings and visits to museums, galleries and sites, the use of ICT-based sources]
  2. to ask and answer questions about the past.

Organisation and communication

5. Pupils should be taught to select from their knowledge of history and communicate it in a variety of ways [for example, talking, writing, using ICT].

Breadth of study

6. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through the following areas of study:

  1. changes in their own lives and the way of life of their family or others around them
  2. the way of life of people in the more distant past who lived in the local area or elsewhere in Britain.
  3. the lives of significant men, women and children drawn from the history of Britain and the wider world [for example, artists, engineers, explorers, inventors, pioneers, rulers, saints, scientists]
  4. Past events from the history of Britain and the wider world [for example, events such as the Gunpowder Plot, the Olympic Games, other events that are commemorated].

During key stage 1 pupils explore ICT and learn to use it confidently and with purpose to achieve specific outcomes. They start to use ICT to develop their ideas and record their creative work. They become familiar with hardware and software.
Note: The general teaching requirement for health and safety applies in this subject.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Finding things out

1. Pupils should be taught how to:

  1. gather information from a variety of sources [for example, people, books, databases, CD-ROMs, videos and TV]
  2. enter and store information in a variety of forms [for example, storing information in a prepared database, saving work]
  3. retrieve information that has been stored [for example, using a CD-ROM, loading saved work].

Developing ideas and making things happen

2. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to use text, tables, images and sound to develop their ideas
  2. how to select from and add to information they have retrieved for particular purposes
  3. how to plan and give instructions to make things happen [for example, programming a floor turtle, placing instructions in the right order]
  4. to try things out and explore what happens in real and imaginary situations [for example, trying out different colours on an image, using an adventure game or simulation].

Exchanging and sharing information

3. Pupils should be taught:

  1. how to share their ideas by presenting information in a variety of forms [for example, text, images, tables, sounds]
  2. to present their completed work effectively [for example, for public display].

Reviewing, modifying and evaluating work as it progresses

4. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. review what they have done to help them develop their ideas
  2. describe the effects of their actions
  3. talk about what they might change in future work.

Breadth of study

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through:

  1. working with a range of information to investigate the different ways it can be presented [for example, information about the Sun presented as a poem, picture or sound pattern]
  2. exploring a variety of ICT tools [for example, floor turtle, word processing software, adventure game]
  3. talking about the uses of ICT inside and outside school.
Art & Design

Teaching should ensure that 'investigating and making' includes 'exploring and developing ideas' and 'evaluating and developing work'. 'Knowledge and understanding' should inform this process.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Exploring and developing ideas

1. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. record from first-hand observation, experience and imagination, and explore ideas
  2. ask and answer questions about the starting points for their work, and develop their ideas.

Investigating and making art, craft and design

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. investigate the possibilities of a range of materials and processes
  2. try out tools and techniques and apply these to materials and processes, including drawing
  3. represent observations, ideas and feelings, and design and make images and artefacts.

Evaluating and developing work

3. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. review what they and others have done and say what they think and feel about it
  2. identify what they might change in their current work or develop in their future work.

Knowledge and understanding

4. Pupils should be taught about:

  1. visual and tactile elements, including colour, pattern and texture, line and tone, shape, form and space
  2. materials and processes used in making art, craft and design
  3. differences and similarities in the work of artists, craftspeople and designers in different times and cultures [for example, sculptors, photographers, architects, textile designers].

Breadth of study

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through:

  1. exploring a range of starting points for practical work [for example, themselves, their experiences, stories, natural and made objects and the local environment]
  2. working on their own, and collaborating with others, on projects in two and three dimensions and on different scales
  3. using a range of materials and processes [for example, painting, collage, print making, digital media, textiles, sculpture]
  4. investigating different kinds of art, craft and design [for example, in the locality, in original and reproduction form, during visits to museums, galleries and sites, on the internet].
Design & Technology

Teaching should ensure that 'knowledge and understanding' are applied when 'developing ideas', 'planning', 'making products' and 'evaluating' them.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Developing, planning and communicating ideas

1. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. generate ideas by drawing on their own and other people's experiences
  2. develop ideas by shaping materials and putting together components
  3. talk about their ideas
  4. plan by suggesting what to do next as their ideas develop
  5. communicate their ideas using a variety of methods, including drawing and making models.

Working with tools, equipment, materials and components to make quality products

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. select tools, techniques and materials for making their product from a range suggested by the teacher
  2. explore the sensory qualities of materials
  3. measure, mark out, cut and shape a range of materials
  4. assemble, join and combine materials and components
  5. use simple finishing techniques to improve the appearance of their product, using a range of equipment
  6. follow safe procedures for food safety and hygiene.

Evaluating processes and products

3. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. talk about their ideas, saying what they like and dislike
  2. identify what they could have done differently or how they could improve their work in the future.

Knowledge and understanding of materials and components

4. Pupils should be taught:

  1. about the working characteristics of materials [for example, folding paper to make it stiffer, plaiting yarn to make it stronger]
  2. how mechanisms can be used in different ways [for example, wheels and axles, joints that allow movement].

Breadth of study

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through:

  1. investigating and evaluating a range of familiar products [for example, talking about how they work, and whether they do what they are supposed to do]
  2. focused practical tasks that develop a range of techniques, skills, processes and knowledge
  3. design and make assignments using a range of materials, including food, items that can be put together to make products, and textiles.
Physical Education (P.E)

Acquiring and developing skills

1. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. explore basic skills, actions and ideas with increasing understanding
  2. remember and repeat simple skills and actions with increasing control and coordination.

Selecting and applying skills, tactics and compositional ideas

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. explore how to choose and apply skills and actions in sequence and in combination
  2. vary the way they perform skills by using simple tactics and movement phrases
  3. apply rules and conventions for different activities.

Evaluating and improving performance

3. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. describe what they have done
  2. observe, describe and copy what others have done
  3. use what they have learnt to improve the quality and control of their work.

Knowledge and understanding of fitness and health

4. Pupils should be taught:

  1. how important it is to be active
  2. to recognise and describe how their bodies feel during different activities.

Breadth of study

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through dance activities, games activities and gymnastic activities.

Dance activities

6. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. use movement imaginatively, responding to stimuli, including music, and performing basic skills [for example, travelling, being still, making a shape, jumping, turning and gesturing]
  2. change the rhythm, speed, level and direction of their movements
  3. create and perform dances using simple movement patterns, including those from different times and cultures
  4. express and communicate ideas and feelings.

Games activities

7. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. travel with, send and receive a ball and other equipment in different ways
  2. develop these skills for simple net, striking/fielding and invasion-type games
  3. play simple, competitive net, striking/fielding and invasion-type games that they and others have made, using simple tactics for attacking and defending.

Gymnastic activities

8. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. perform basic skills in travelling, being still, finding space and using it safely, both on the floor and using apparatus
  2. develop the range of their skills and actions [for example, balancing, taking off and landing, turning and rolling]
  3. choose and link skills and actions in short movement phrases
  4. create and perform short, linked sequences that show a clear beginning, middle and end and have contrasts in direction, level and speed.

Swimming activities and water safety

9. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. move in water [for example, jump, walk, hop and spin, using swimming aids and support]
  2. float and move with and without swimming aids
  3. feel the buoyancy and support of water and swimming aids
propel themselves in water using different swimming aids, arm and leg actions and basic strokes.

Teaching should ensure that 'listening, and applying knowledge and understanding', are developed through the interrelated skills of 'performing', 'composing' and 'appraising'.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Controlling sounds through singing and playing - performing skills

1. Pupils should be taught how to:

  1. use their voices expressively by singing songs and speaking chants and rhymes
  2. play tuned and untuned instruments
  3. rehearse and perform with others [for example, starting and finishing together, keeping to a steady pulse].

Creating and developing musical ideas - composing skills

2. Pupils should be taught how to:

  1. create musical patterns
  2. explore, choose and organise sounds and musical ideas.

Responding and reviewing - appraising skills

3. Pupils should be taught how to:

  1. explore and express their ideas and feelings about music using movement, dance and expressive and musical language
  2. make improvements to their own work.

Listening, and applying knowledge and understanding

4. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to listen with concentration and to internalise and recall sounds with increasing aural memory
  2. how the combined musical elements of pitch, duration, dynamics, tempo, timbre, texture and silence can be organised and used expressively within simple structures [for example, beginning, middle, end]
  3. how sounds can be made in different ways [for example, vocalising, clapping, by musical instruments, in the environment] and described using given and invented signs and symbols
  4. how music is used for particular purposes [for example, for dance, as a lullaby].

Breadth of study

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through:

  1. a range of musical activities that integrate performing, composing and appraising
  2. responding to a range of musical and non-musical starting points
  3. working on their own, in groups of different sizes and as a class
  4. a range of live and recorded music from different times and cultures.
Optional subjects at Key stage 1 of the National Curriculum
The following are the optional subjects at key stage 1 that can be opted out of**.


During key stage 1 pupils learn about themselves as developing individuals and as members of their communities, building on their own experiences and on the early learning goals for personal, social and emotional development. They learn the basic rules and skills for keeping themselves healthy and safe and for behaving well. They have opportunities to show they can take some responsibility for themselves and their environment. They begin to learn about their own and other people's feelings and become aware of the views, needs and rights of other children and older people. As members of a class and school community, they learn social skills such as how to share, take turns, play, help others, resolve simple arguments and resist bullying. They begin to take an active part in the life of their school and its neighbourhood.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their abilities

1. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to recognise what they like and dislike, what is fair and unfair, and what is right and wrong
  2. to share their opinions on things that matter to them and explain their views
  3. to recognise, name and deal with their feelings in a positive way
  4. to think about themselves, learn from their experiences and recognise what they are good at
  5. how to set simple goals.

Preparing to play an active role as citizens

2. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to take part in discussions with one other person and the whole class
  2. to take part in a simple debate about topical issues
  3. to recognise choices they can make, and recognise the difference between right and wrong
  4. to agree and follow rules for their group and classroom, and understand how rules help them
  5. to realise that people and other living things have needs, and that they have responsibilities to meet them
  6. that they belong to various groups and communities, such as family and school
  7. what improves and harms their local, natural and built environments and about some of the ways people look after them
  8. to contribute to the life of the class and school
  9. to realise that money comes from different sources and can be used for different purposes.

Developing a healthy, safer lifestyle

3. Pupils should be taught:

  1. how to make simple choices that improve their health and wellbeing
  2. to maintain personal hygiene
  3. how some diseases spread and can be controlled
  4. about the process of growing from young to old and how people's needs change
  5. the names of the main parts of the body
  6. that all household products, including medicines, can be harmful if not used properly
  7. rules for, and ways of, keeping safe, including basic road safety, and about people who can help them to stay safe.

Developing good relationships and respecting the differences between people

4. Pupils should be taught:

  1. to recognise how their behaviour affects other people
  2. to listen to other people, and play and work cooperatively
  3. to identify and respect the differences and similarities between people
  4. that family and friends should care for each other
  5. that there are different types of teasing and bullying, that bullying is wrong, and how to get help to deal with bullying.

Breadth of opportunities

5. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through opportunities to:

  1. take and share responsibility [for example, for their own behaviour; by helping to make classroom rules and following them; by looking after pets well]
  2. feel positive about themselves [for example, by having their achievements recognised and by being given positive feedback about themselves]
  3. take part in discussions [for example, talking about topics of school, local, national, European, Commonwealth and global concern, such as 'where our food and raw materials for industry come from']
  4. make real choices [for example, between healthy options in school meals, what to watch on television, what games to play, how to spend and save money sensibly]
  5. meet and talk with people [for example, with outside visitors such as religious leaders, police officers, the school nurse]
  6. develop relationships through work and play [for example, by sharing equipment with other pupils or their friends in a group task]
  7. consider social and moral dilemmas that they come across in everyday life [for example, aggressive behaviour, questions of fairness, right and wrong, simple political issues, use of money, simple environmental issues]
  8. ask for help [for example, from family and friends, midday supervisors, older pupils, the police].
Religious Education

Throughout key stage 1, pupils explore Christianity and at least one other principal religion. They learn about different beliefs about God and the world around them. They encounter and respond to a range of stories, artefacts and other religious materials. They learn to recognise that beliefs are expressed in a variety of ways, and begin to use specialist vocabulary. They begin to understand the importance and value of religion and belief, especially for other children and their families. Pupils ask relevant questions and develop a sense of wonder about the world, using their imaginations. They talk about what is important to them and others, valuing themselves, reflecting on their own feelings and experiences and developing a sense of belonging.

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Learning about religion

1. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. explore a range of religious stories and sacred writings and talk about their meanings
  2. name and explore a range of celebrations, worship and rituals in religion, noting similarities where appropriate
  3. identify the importance, for some people, of belonging to a religion and recognise the difference this makes to their lives
  4. explore how religious beliefs and ideas can be expressed through the arts and communicate their responses
  5. identify and suggest meanings for religious symbols and begin to use a range of religious words.

Learning from religion

2. Pupils should be taught to:

  1. reflect on and consider religious and spiritual feelings, experiences and concepts such as worship, wonder, praise, thanks, concern, joy and sadness
  2. ask and respond imaginatively to puzzling questions, communicating their ideas
  3. identify what matters to them and others, including those with religious commitments, and communicate their responses
  4. reflect on how spiritual and moral values relate to their own behaviour
  5. recognise that religious teachings and ideas make a difference to individuals, families and the local community.

Breadth of study

3. During the key stage, pupils should be taught the Knowledge, skills and understanding through the following areas of study:

Religions and beliefs

  1. Christianity
  2. at least one other principal religion
  3. a religious community with a significant local presence, where appropriate
  4. a secular world view, where appropriate


  1. believing: what people believe about God, humanity and the natural world
  2. story: how and why some stories are sacred and important in religion
  3. celebrations: how and why celebrations are important in religion
  4. symbols: how and why symbols express religious meaning
  5. leaders and teachers: figures who have an influence on others locally, nationally and globally in religion
  6. belonging: where and how people belong and why belonging is important
  7. myself: who I am and my uniqueness as a person in a family and community

Experiences and opportunities

  1. visiting places of worship and focusing on symbols and feelings
  2. listening and responding to visitors from local faith communities
  3. using their senses and having times of quiet reflection
  4. using art and design, music, dance and drama to develop their creative talents and imagination
  5. sharing their own beliefs, ideas and values and talking about their feelings and experiences
  6. beginning to use ICT to explore religions and beliefs as practised in the local and wider community.